John Inglis

John Inglis


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John Inglis nació en Escocia. Trabajó como mecánico en Glasgow, además de jugar como exterior izquierdo para los Glasgow Rangers.

El 10 de marzo de 1883, Ingris ganó un partido internacional jugando para Escocia contra Inglaterra. Escocia ganó 3-2. Dos días después jugó en la victoria por 3-0 sobre Gales. Esta vez el equipo ganó 3-0. Fue su última internacionalización, ya que ese mismo año se unió al Blackburn Rovers. En ese momento, Escocia no seleccionó a hombres que jugaran en Inglaterra.

El Blackburn Times informó: "Hay un punto sobre Blackburn Rovers que no da total satisfacción y este es la introducción de Inglis de los Glasgow Rangers. Son" líneas duras "sobre Sowerbutts o cualquier otra persona que sea suplantada, que después de los fieles servicios del pasado debería ser expulsado de esta manera, y además de eso, hay una clase de gente en la ciudad que preferiría perder la Copa por sus méritos que ganarla con la ayuda de un extraño especialmente presentado ". De hecho, Joe Sowerbutts, un muchacho local, había emergido como una de las estrellas del equipo y mantuvo su lugar junto a Inglis.

Después de que Blackburn Rovers venciera al Notts County en la semifinal de la Copa FA, el club presentó una queja oficial a la Asociación de Fútbol de que John Inglis era un jugador profesional. La FA llevó a cabo una investigación sobre el caso y descubrió que Inglis todavía trabajaba como mecánico en Glasgow y no se ganaba la vida jugando al fútbol en el Blackburn Rovers.

John Inglis jugó en la final contra Queens Park en el exterior izquierdo. Otros escoceses en el equipo incluyeron a Jimmy Douglas (exterior derecho) Fergie Suter (lateral izquierdo) y Hugh McIntyre (mitad central). El club escocés marcó el primer gol, pero Blackburn Rovers ganó el partido con goles de los chicos de Blackburn, James Forrest y Joe Sowerbutts.


La elección de Biden para director cibernético no está clara si la estrategia cibernética del gobierno funciona

La elección del presidente Biden para el primer director cibernético nacional de Estados Unidos no es segura de que el gobierno federal tenga una estrategia cibernética unificadora.

John C. Inglis, el nominado para el nuevo cargo, dijo a los senadores el jueves que si es confirmado, su primera pregunta sería si la estructura cibernética del gobierno funciona.

“Tenemos algunas fortalezas profundas y afiladas, tenemos fortaleza en lugares como [Agencia de Seguridad de Infraestructura y Ciberseguridad], el FBI, las agencias nacionales que hacen inteligencia y [Administración de Servicios Generales], pero no está del todo claro que sean coherentes con eso hemos logrado la unidad de propósito de que todos están operando de acuerdo con una estrategia única que conectaría esa diversidad de manera que se convierta en una fortaleza ”, dijo el Sr. Inglis en una audiencia de confirmación en el Senado. "Creo que podemos y debemos ser más grandes que la suma de nuestras partes, no estoy seguro de que estemos ahí todavía".

Inglis testificó junto a Jen Easterly, la elección de Biden para dirigir la Agencia de Seguridad de Infraestructura y Ciberseguridad (CISA). Juntos, tendrían la tarea de desarrollar una estrategia cibernética nacional en medio de una plaga de ciberataques que golpean la infraestructura crítica y los piratas informáticos que corrompen las redes federales. El Sr. Inglis y la Sra. Easterly sirvieron anteriormente en la Agencia de Seguridad Nacional.

Precisamente lo que harán el Sr. Inglis y la Sra. Easterly si se confirma es todavía un tema de debate. El senador Angus King, independiente de Maine que forma parte de los demócratas, dijo a sus colegas que los nominados supervisarían el conflicto en el dominio cibernético dondequiera que surja: en Wall Street, en una empresa de tuberías o en una empresa de servicios de agua en cualquier parte de Estados Unidos.

El Sr. King presentó al Sr. Inglis al Comité de Asuntos Gubernamentales y Seguridad Nacional del Senado e instó a los legisladores a "reimaginar el conflicto".

“Estados Unidos está bajo ataque, hoy estamos bajo ataque, y este es uno de los conflictos más serios, uno de los desafíos más serios que este país ha enfrentado en el período posterior a la Segunda Guerra Mundial”, dijo King. “Los dos puestos de los que realmente estamos hablando hoy son el equivalente al secretario de Defensa y al jefe del Estado Mayor Conjunto. Estas son personas que estarán encargadas de defender a este país en lo que es un conflicto grave y en curso ”.

Los nominados optaron por descripciones más benignas, con la Sra. Easterly presentándose como mariscal de campo y el Sr. Inglis como su entrenador en jefe. El Sr. Inglis dijo que supervisaría los presupuestos, las políticas y la planificación, mientras que la Sra. Easterly dijo que se concentraría en conseguir a CISA el personal, la autoridad y el presupuesto que necesitaba para garantizar que la agencia tuviera la capacidad de proteger al gobierno federal.

A su llegada, los nuevos funcionarios cibernéticos federales encontrarán a su disposición crecientes sumas de efectivo de los contribuyentes. A medida que se han multiplicado los ciberataques y hacks que afectan al país y al gobierno, también lo ha hecho el gasto de los contribuyentes en ciberseguridad. CISA recibió $ 650 millones como parte de un paquete de ayuda COVID-19 aprobado a principios de este año, y un dúo bipartidista de los representantes Jim Langevin, demócrata de Rhode Island y Mike Gallagher, republicano de Wisconsin, han presionado para que CISA reciba $ 400 millones más de inmediato. .

La instalación del Sr. Inglis y la Sra. Easterly en los puestos cibernéticos más importantes del gobierno federal también serviría como un triunfo de la Comisión Cyberspace Solarium, que ha perseguido la revisión de la política cibernética nacional de una manera inspirada en el estudio secreto del Proyecto Solarium de la administración Eisenhower que consideró opciones para enfrentar a la Unión Soviética en la Guerra Fría.

El Sr. King y el Sr. Gallagher copresidieron la comisión, mientras que el Sr. Inglis se desempeñó como comisionado y la Sra. Easterly participó en el "equipo rojo" de la comisión que proporcionó información sobre el desarrollo de una estrategia de disuasión cibernética. El Sr. King y el Sr. Gallagher avalaron las nominaciones del Sr. Inglis y la Sra. Easterly.

El Congreso creó la comisión en un proyecto de ley de defensa de 2018 y la comisión promociona haber codificado 25 de sus recomendaciones en ley. La comisión logró que el gobierno federal adoptara todas sus recomendaciones para el Departamento de Defensa, pero tuvo menos éxito en otras agencias federales, dijo Mark Montgomery, director ejecutivo de la Comisión Cyberspace Solarium, en el Cyberlaw Podcast de Steptoe & amp Johnson publicado en abril.

Montgomery dijo que la comisión termina oficialmente el 31 de diciembre de 2021, pero la presencia de Inglis y Easterly en el gobierno puede ayudar a garantizar que la agenda restante de la Comisión del Solárium del Ciberespacio supere ese plazo.


John Inglis - Historia

Inglés / Inglés fue aceptado como un sept de Douglas por CDSNA en su organización en 1975 basado en la lista original del libro Parientes y parientes escoceses.

La fuerte conexión entre Douglas e Inglis se encuentra en Historia temprana de Inglis, iglesia de St. Bride e rsquos.

& ldquoEl crucero sur sin techo, que invariablemente se conoce como el Pasillo de los Inglis, merece un examen detenido. La historia tradicional detrás del nombre es la siguiente: en los primeros años del siglo XIV, cuando Douglasdale fue invadido repetidamente y a menudo en manos de los ingleses, la familia Inglis alquilaba la granja de Weston. Una vez, Inglis logró escuchar los planes ingleses para tomar el castillo y, con gran riesgo, transmitió una advertencia al Douglas. Por este y quizás otros servicios se le pidió que nombrara su recompensa, y respondió que su mayor deseo era ser enterrado bajo el mismo techo que su amo. En consecuencia, el crucero sur fue apartado como el lugar de enterramiento de Inglis y sus descendientes para siempre. Así dice la historia, y hasta años relativamente recientes, los descendientes de los Douglas Inglis han estado enterrados allí. Hay varias tablas conmemorativas en las paredes, algunas con el escudo de armas de Inglis y el lema de la familia " Recte faciendo securus ". Un fragmento de una rima local sobrevive en el pareado:

Fue entregado a los niños de Inglis e Ingliss

Y eso está en los aires de Inglis.

Más evidencia de Inglis se encuentra en Nisbet & rsquos Heráldica, vol i. 83:

John Inglis de Manor obtiene una carta de confirmación de sus tierras de Manor, para él y su hijo y heredero Thomas Inglis, de su superior, Archibald, Duque de Touraine, Conde de Douglas y las tres estrellas en jefe, llevadas por el nombre de Inglis, considero armas de mecenazgo y llevados por ese nombre, por el hecho de que eran vasallos de los Douglas. Thomas Inglis de Manor hizo una excambion de sus tierras de Brankesholm, Branshaugh, Goldylands, CMahitelaw, Quhitrig, Todshaw-hills y Todshaw-wood, que poseía de los Douglas, con Sir Walter Scot de Murthouston, por las tierras de Murthouston y Duramen, que se encuentra en la baronía de Bothwell en la comarca de Lanark según el estatuto de excambion, fechado en Edimburgo el 23 de julio de 1446, en el que está diseñado, Nobilis vir Thomas Inglis de Manners y luego él y su familia en otros escritos fueron diseñados, Domini de Murtboustoun o Murdistoun.

Nisbet, Alexander y Robert Fleming. Un sistema de heráldica especulativo y práctico: con el verdadero arte del blasón, según los heraldos más aprobados de Europa: ilustrado con ejemplos adecuados de figuras armadas y logros de los nombres y familias más importantes de Escocia, & ampc. por Alexander Nisbet. Edimburgo: Impreso para J. MackEuen. Anno Dom, 1722. Imprimir.


John Inglis - Historia

Inglis, John Auchincloss, Carta. 1 articulo. Mss2IN47a1.
Una carta, [1862], de John Auchincloss Inglis (1813-1878), posiblemente del 36.º Regimiento de Carolina del Norte (2.ª Batería de Artillería de Carolina del Norte), a un amigo sobre la posibilidad de que su unidad se una al Ejército de Virginia del Norte en su defensa. de Richmond durante la campaña de la Península.

"Interesante vista de pájaro del asiento de la guerra", mapa, 1861. 1 artículo. Mapa F221 1861: 10.
Un mapa, titulado "Interesante vista panorámica de la sede de la guerra", que muestra los estados de Maryland, Virginia y Carolina del Norte en 1861. En el reverso hay una carta, 18 de julio de 1861, de Henry Shaw, del 2. ° de New Hampshire. Regimiento de infantería sobre la vida del campamento en vísperas de la primera batalla de Bull Run.

Documentos de la familia Irving, 1833–1931. 55 artículos. Mss1IR85a.
Esta colección contiene los documentos de la familia Irving del condado de Amelia. Los artículos en tiempo de guerra consisten en una comisión, el 12 de octubre de 1863, como mayor en el 1er Regimiento de Caballería de Virginia otorgada a Charles Robert Irving (1835-1914) (sección 5), y una libertad condicional, el 10 de abril de 1865, otorgada a Charles Irving en Appomattox Court House (sección 6).

Jackson, John A., Letter, 1862. 1 artículo. Mss2J1353a1.
Una carta, el 15 de octubre de 1862, de John A. Jackson, de una unidad no identificada, a su hermana sobre la captura de su hermano William por el ejército de la Unión durante la campaña de Maryland y su posterior intercambio en Winchester.

Jackson, Samuel K., Ensayo, ca. 1885. 1 artículo. Mss7: 1L515: 6.
Esta colección contiene un ensayo escrito por Samuel K. Jackson (n. 1817), sobre Robert E. Lee en la segunda batalla de Bull Run.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, Papers, 1846–1932. 97 artículos. Mss1J1385a. Bobina de microfilm C598.
Los documentos de Thomas J. Jackson consisten en materiales, 1846-1932, sobre su vida en general y su servicio militar confederado. La correspondencia de Jackson en tiempos de guerra, 1861-1863, con Robert E. Lee, John Letcher (1813-1884), Alexander Robinson Boteler (1815-1892), Stapleton Crutchfield (1835-1865) y Judah Philip Benjamin (1811-1884) se refieren a Jackson comando en Harpers Ferry (ahora W.Va.), en 1861, la campaña de Romney, la campaña del Valle y la batalla de Cedar Mountain.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, Papers, 1861–1862. 6 artículos. Mss2J1385a. Bobina de microfilm C598.
Esta colección consta de cartas, 1861–1862, de Thomas J. Jackson a oficiales confederados. Se incluye una carta a Samuel Cooper anunciando las victorias de Jackson en el valle de Shenandoah en Front Royal y Winchester (a5) a Thomas Grimke Rhett (1821? -1898) sobre las fuerzas de la Unión en Romney (ahora W.Va.), la necesidad de un ingeniero. y daños por inundaciones en el canal de Chesapeake y Ohio (a8) a Alexander Robinson Boteler (1815-1892) con respecto a la llegada de Jackson a Winchester, las solicitudes de caballería y el armamento de 2.500 a 3.000 soldados indios (a10) a Pierre GT Beauregard en relación con la regalo de una pistola y la aprobación de Jackson del plan de campaña de Beauregard en Occidente (a11) a Richard Stoddert Ewell en relación con el papel de Ewell en la prevención de una unión de fuerzas de la Unión cerca de Warm Springs (a12) y a Charles James Faulkner (1806-1884) en relación con Faulkner cita para el personal de Jackson (a13).

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, Papers, 1862. 6 artículos. Mss2J1385c. Bobina de microfilm C64.
Esta colección consta de cartas, del 28 de marzo al 11 de junio de 1862, de Thomas J. Jackson a Asher Waterman Harman (1830-1895) sobre la batalla de Kernstown y la moral del ejército de Jackson (c1), botones de uniforme y el trato a los desertores ( c2), órdenes que ponen a Harman al mando de Staunton (c3), órdenes de movimiento de tropas y provisiones hospitalarias en Staunton (c4), una solicitud de vagones y una oferta de servicio de caballería para Harman (C5), y una solicitud enviada a Robert E. Lee por una pieza de artillería por cada 1.000 soldados enviados a Jackson (C6). Las letras están impresas en el Papeles de la Sociedad Histórica del Sur 19 (1891): 318–21.

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, Sketches, 1861–1863. 4 elementos. Mss2J1385b. Bobina de microfilm C598.
Esta pequeña colección contiene tres dibujos de Thomas J. Jackson durante la guerra de Alexander Robinson Boteler (1815–1892) y William G. Williamson. Cada boceto incluye una breve descripción de Jedediah Hotchkiss (1827–1899). También se incluye un boceto del taburete de campamento de Jackson hecho por Williamson.

James, Charles Fenton, Letters, 1865. 23 págs. Fotocopia del texto mecanografiado. Mss2J2317a1.
Fotocopias de transcripciones de cartas, del 7 al 18 de febrero de 1865, de Charles Fenton James (1844-1902) de la Compañía F del 8. ° Regimiento de Infantería de Virginia a su hermana, Emma A. James del condado de Loudoun, sobre la moral en el Ejército del Norte de Virginia después de la Conferencia de Paz de Hampton Roads, las condiciones económicas en la Confederación en febrero de 1865, la orden general de Robert E. Lee que otorga amnistía a los desertores a su regreso al ejército, el papel de las mujeres confederadas en la prevención de la deserción y el intercambio de prisioneros. También en la colección hay un breve relato de la posguerra de la retirada de la octava Virginia de Yorktown en abril-mayo de 1862.

James, George Watson, Papers, 1887–1961. 846 artículos. Mss1J2334a.
Contiene los documentos de George Watson James (1887-1971) de Richmond, poeta y autor. Se incluye una copia fotográfica de un dibujo de John Banister Tabb (1845-1909) de la tienda en la que vivió mientras estaba encarcelado en Point Lookout, Maryland (sección 3).

Jennings, Alvan James Edmund, Documentos, 1862–1879. 9 artículos. Mss2J4413b.
Esta colección contiene los documentos de Alvan James Edmund Jennings (1820–1868) del condado de James City. Se incluyen cartas, 1864–1865, de Jennings a su esposa, Virginia Hall (Enos) Jennings, en relación con su encarcelamiento en Camp Hamilton. También contiene listas de bienes confiscados por el ejército confederado durante su retirada a la Península en 1862 y por el ejército de la Unión en diferentes momentos durante la guerra y de esclavos emancipados por la guerra.

Documentos de la familia Jewett, 1808–1878. 24 artículos. Mss2J5565b.
Esta colección consta principalmente de las cartas en tiempo de guerra, 1863–1865, de Pliny A. Jewett de la Compañía E del 1er Regimiento de Caballería de Connecticut. Las cartas a casa de Jewett describen, en detalle, la vida en campamentos en lugares de Maryland y Virginia, una visita a Washington, DC, mientras estaba de permiso, la construcción de fortificaciones alrededor de Washington por negros libres, la ejecución de dos desertores cerca de Winchester en enero de 1864, y enfrentamientos de caballería (incluidas las operaciones alrededor de Fredericksburg en junio de 1863, la batalla de Spotsylvania Court House [12 de mayo de 1864] y una incursión de caballería contra Lacey Springs en diciembre de 1864) (sección 1). También en la colección hay un pase de dos días, el 17 de marzo de 1863, expedido a Pliny Jewett, y dos periódicos del regimiento escritos a mano, ca. 1863, editado por Jewett (sección 2).

Jobson, J. Tyler, Recuerdos, n.d. 6 artículos. Mecanografiado. Mss7: 3E473.2J5793: 1.
Esta colección contiene los recuerdos mecanografiados de J. Tyler Jobson de la Compañía G del 9º Regimiento de Infantería de Virginia. Jobson ofrece una descripción detallada de la batalla de Hampton Roads. Se incluyen en la colección fotocopias de dibujos de la USS Merrimack y de bocetos de diferentes etapas de la batalla.

Johnson, Elijah S., Papers, 1862-1907. 2 artículos. Mss2J6314b. Bobina de microfilm C598.
Esta pequeña colección contiene los documentos de Elijah S. Johnson de Alabama. Se incluye un diario, del 9 de marzo de 1863 al 14 de enero de 1864, mantenido por Johnson mientras servía en el 15º Regimiento de Caballería de Virginia, que describe el servicio de piquetes y las escaramuzas a lo largo del río Rappahannock. El diario y la Biblia de Johnson, también en la colección, llevan la marca de una bala que lo alcanzó durante una pelea en Brandy Station el 13 de septiembre de 1863.

Johnson, S. G., Receipt, 1862. 1 p. Mss12: 1862 17 de septiembre: 1.
Un recibo, el 17 de septiembre de 1862, que autoriza el pago de $ 50 a S. G. Johnson de la Compañía C del 35º Regimiento de Infantería de Georgia por su servicio en el ejército.

Documentos de la familia Johnston, 1782–1973. 1.665 artículos. Mss1J6496a.
Esta colección consta principalmente de los documentos de Frederick Johnston (1812–1893) de Salem. Se incluye un libro de cuentas, 1862-1863, mantenido por Charles L. Snyder (m. 1863), mientras se desempeñaba como comisario del Departamento de Guerra Confederado en los condados de Craig, Pulaski y Roanoke (sección 12). Las primeras noventa y tres páginas del libro contienen entradas relativas a la venta de ganado, pagos a personas que crían ganado para el gobierno confederado, la compra de maíz, pagos a civiles que cuidaban caballos pertenecientes a la Confederación y todos los aspectos de la compra y venta. Manejo de cerdos.

Johnston, James Ambler, Papers, 1784-1902. 320 artículos. Mss1J6445a.
Esta colección, donada por James Ambler Johnston (1885-1974) de Richmond, contiene los documentos de Johnston y familias relacionadas del condado de Botetourt y Roanoke y Salem. Las cartas de Frederick Johnston (1812–1893) a su hija, Frances Royall Johnston (1835–1909), hablan de su viaje a Norfolk en agosto de 1861 para visitar a familiares en el servicio confederado, su asistencia a la reunión de la Asamblea General Presbiteriana en Augusta, Georgia. , en diciembre de 1861, su búsqueda de parientes heridos en los hospitales de Richmond, los comentarios críticos de Johnston dirigidos a Robert E. Lee tras el fracaso de Lee en destruir el ejército de la Unión en las batallas de los Siete Días, y sus comentarios sobre las noticias de los soldados de Salem en el Salem Flying Batería de artillería en agosto de 1863 (sección 1).

Los documentos de Nathaniel Burwell Johnston (1846-1925) contienen una carta, el 24 de abril de 1861, de Nathaniel Johnston, mientras era estudiante de la Escuela Preparatoria Clifton en el condado de Fauquier, a su padre, Frederick Johnston, describiendo a los soldados confederados que pasaban por la escuela el su marcha a Harpers Ferry (ahora W.Va.) una licencia de un mes, 1864, emitió a Nathaniel Johnston de Salem Flying Artillery Battery una declaración, 1864, sobre la edad de Johnston, descripción física, rango y unidad militar una cuenta, 1864, para las raciones compradas por Johnston mientras estaba en licencia, un certificado, 1864, que documenta que Johnston encontró un sustituto capacitado para ocupar su lugar en el 1er Batallón de Artillería Ligera de Virginia mientras Johnston estaba en licencia y una carta, el 7 de febrero de 1865, de Nathaniel Johnston a su hermana en relación, en parte, con la oferta de una comisión de fines de la guerra a su padre, Frederick Johnston (sección 2).

También en la colección hay una carta, 10 de octubre de 1861, de Robert E. Lee a John Buchanan Floyd ofreciendo sugerencias de qué regimientos deberían realizar ciertas funciones en Sewell Mountain, condado de Fayette (ahora W.Va.) (sección 20).

Johnston, Mary Sayre (Macon), Notas, ca. 1930. 1 artículo. Fotocopia. Mss7: 1G7674: 1.
Una fotocopia de notas escritas a mano, escritas por Mary Sayre (Macon) Johnston (1850-1935), que ofrece una descripción de una reunión entre Ulysses S. Grant y el padre de Mary, William Hartwell Macon (1819-1891), en Ingleside, condado de Hanover, durante la batalla de Cold Harbor.

Johnston, Philip Preston, Letter, 1898. 1 artículo. Mss2J6462a1.
Una carta del 2 de diciembre de 1898 de Philip Preston Johnston (1840-1925) de Lexington, Ky., A Edwin P. Cox de Richmond, que describe el carácter y el servicio militar de John Pelham (1838-1863), comandante del Stuart Horse Artillería.

Johnston, Samuel Richards, Papers, 1862–1899. 35 artículos. Mss2J6475b.
Esta colección consta principalmente de los documentos de Samuel Richards Johnston (1833-1899) de Alejandría. Los materiales relacionados con su servicio como ingeniero en el personal de Robert E. Lee incluyen correspondencia, 1865-1892, con ex confederados sobre el papel de Johnston como guía de James Longstreet en el segundo día de la batalla de Gettysburg, la marcha de Longstreet al campo de batalla de Second Bull Run, y un breve recuerdo de Johnston de sus experiencias en la batalla de Chancellorsville (sección 1) cartas oficiales y comisiones, 1862-1864, para Johnston como capitán, mayor y teniente coronel en los ingenieros confederados (sección 2) una carta, 11 de septiembre de 1864, de Wade Hampton a Robert E. Lee sobre la necesidad de que un ingeniero examine una parte del terreno a lo largo de Boydton Plank Road, al suroeste de Petersburgo, con el fin de construir fortificaciones (sección 3) una carta, 23 de septiembre 1864, de Wade Hampton a Samuel Johnston con respecto al plan de Johnston para extender los movimientos de tierra confederados al suroeste de Petersburgo una carta, el 28 de marzo de 1865, a Johnston de James Longstreet concernin g fortificaciones cerca de Williamsburg Road, al este de Richmond una carta, el 8 de enero de 1863, a Johnston de Alfred Landon Rives (1830-1903) refiriéndose a un bosquejo de las carreteras de los condados de Culpeper y Rappahannock hecho por Johnston para el ingeniero Jeremy Francis Gilmer ( 1818-1883) una orden especial, el 9 de abril de 1865, que autoriza a Longstreet, John Brown Gordon y William Nelson Pendleton a llevar a cabo las disposiciones acordadas en el acuerdo de rendición entre Lee y Ulysses Simpson Conceder una orden especial, el 10 de abril de 1865, emitida por Grant que permite a los oficiales confederados en libertad condicional pasar a través de las líneas de la Unión y un juramento de lealtad al gobierno de los Estados Unidos, el 20 de mayo de 1865, jurado por Samuel Johnston (sección 4). Los corresponsales en la sección 1 incluyen a John Roy Baylor (1821-1926), Osmun Latrobe (1835-1915), Fitzhugh Lee, James Longstreet, Lafayette McLaws, George William Peterkin (1841-1916) y George Wise.

Jones, Alexander Caldwell, Papers, 1858–1898. 32 artículos. Mss2J7104b.
Esta colección contiene los documentos de Alexander Caldwell Jones (1830–1898) del condado de Marshall (ahora W.Va.). Los materiales de la Guerra Civil incluyen cartas y telegramas de varias personas sobre su servicio en el 44. ° Regimiento de Infantería de Virginia y como inspector general del personal de John B. Magruder (sección 1) una carta, 27 de septiembre de 1862, de Nathaniel Tyler (1828-1917) de Richmond a George Wythe Randolph (1818-1867) solicitando que Jones sea asignado al mando de las tropas confederadas en el noroeste de Virginia y una carta, el 19 de julio de 1862, de William Riddick Whitehead (1831-1903), mientras que el cirujano de la 44a Virginia, con respecto a un permiso de ausencia para que Jones se recupere de las heridas recibidas en la batalla de Gaines 'Mill (sección 2). Otros artículos incluyen una orden impresa, el 2 de febrero de 1864, emitida por Magruder que asigna a Jones como inspector general del Distrito de Texas, Nuevo México y Arizona, una comisión de 1861 para Jones como mayor en el ejército confederado y libertad condicional, 1865, expedido a Jones por el ejército de la Unión (sección 4).

Jones, Benjamin Anderson, Memorias, ca. 1902. 1 volumen. Mss5: 1J7113: 1.
Contiene las memorias de Benjamin Anderson Jones (1842-1925). Se incluyen descripciones de su servicio como miembro de la Compañía F del 44 ° Regimiento de Infantería de Virginia en el oeste de Virginia (ahora W.Va.) en 1861, mientras era prisionero de guerra en Point Lookout, Maryland, y en Elmira, NY, y en los siguientes compromisos: las batallas de los Siete Días, Segundo Bull Run, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg y Spotsylvania Court House y en las campañas de 1862 Shenandoah Valley y Mine Run.

Jones, Beuhring Hampden, compilador, Lista de prisioneros confederados detenidos en Johnson's Island, Ohio, 1864. 1 volumen. Mss12: 1864: 1.
Este volumen, 1864, compilado por Beuhring Hampden Jones (1823–1872) del 60º Regimiento de Infantería de Virginia, contiene materiales sobre los soldados confederados encarcelados en Johnson's Island, Ohio. La mayor parte del volumen consta de una lista, del 22 de noviembre de 1862 al 5 de septiembre de 1864, de 2.609 prisioneros (incluido el nombre, rango, unidad, residencia y lugar y fecha de captura de cada hombre), y una lista del 1 de mayo de 1862-3. Marzo de 1864, de 168 soldados que murieron de enfermedad mientras estaban en Johnson's Island. También se incluyen listas de oficiales generales confederados, poesía variada compuesta por prisioneros y un dibujo en acuarela de Johnson's Island. La lista está impresa en parte en Colecciones de la Sociedad Histórica de Virginia (Richmond, 1887), nueva serie, 6: 237–345.

Jones, Catesby ap Roger, Report, 1861. 1 artículo. Mss2J7126a2.
Un informe, el 12 de octubre de 1861, presentado por Catesby ap Roger Jones (1821-1877) sobre un experimento con artillería que probaba la resistencia de las fortificaciones de hierro realizado en la isla de Jamestown. Se incluyen fotocopias de los dibujos que acompañaron al informe.

Jones Family Papers, 1812-1930. 195 artículos. Mss1J735d.
Esta colección contiene los documentos de miembros de la familia Jones de Virginia. Cartas, 1861-1863, de Robert Brooke Jones (1829? -1864) del 5. ° Regimiento de Caballería de Virginia a su esposa, Elizabeth Hill (Goodloe) Jones (1835? -1873), discuten su servicio en la caballería como explorador y el batallas de Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville y Gettysburg (sección 4). La correspondencia de Elizabeth Jones incluye cartas de Archibald Govan Hill (1839-1914) de la Compañía H del 53 ° Regimiento de Infantería de Virginia que describen el servicio de piquete en la Península en febrero de 1862 de John Taliaferro Jones (n. 1825) sobre la retirada confederada de Centerville en De marzo de 1862 y de Mary Ann Brooke (Pollard) Jones Montague (m. 1889) y Charles Hill Ryland (1836-1914) sobre la muerte de Robert Brooke Jones en la batalla de Yellow Tavern (sección 6). Otros elementos de la colección incluyen una carta, el 26 de mayo de 1861, a Laura (Jones) White (1837-1916) de [?] Harrison de la Compañía C del 5.º Regimiento de Caballería de Virginia sobre el deber de guardia y su frustración por la falta de actividad militar. on the Peninsula (sección 7), y una carta, el 29 de julio de 1876, de Catesby ap Roger Jones (1821-1877) a Robert Baker Pegram (1811-1894) que ofrece una descripción de la captura confederada del polvorín en Norfolk el 19 Abril de 1861 (sección 13).

Jones, William Edmonson, Papers, 1845–1968. 26 artículos. Fotocopias. Mss2J7286b.
Esta colección contiene documentos relacionados con la Unión y el servicio militar confederado de William Edmonson Jones. Los materiales de la Guerra Civil incluyen cartas de 1863 de Jones a WHS Taylor con respecto a los caballos confiscados por el ejército confederado (b3–4) una orden general, el 8 de octubre de 1863, que anuncia la decisión de un consejo de guerra sobre los cargos presentados contra Jones por JEB Stuart (b8 ) y la Orden Especial No. 281, 29 de diciembre de 1862, que asigna a Jones al mando del Distrito del Valle (b9).

Documentos de la familia Jordan-Bell, 1861–1864. 19 artículos. Mss2J761b. Bobina de microfilm C598.
Esta colección consta principalmente de las cartas de la época de la guerra de Isaac G. Bell y Jesse W. Jordan (1839–1862). Las cartas a casa de Isaac Bell ofrecen descripciones de su servicio en el 11 ° Regimiento de Infantería de Mississippi en Harpers Ferry (ahora W.Va.) en la primavera de 1861, en la primera batalla de Bull Run, y en el campamento cerca de Yorktown. Las cartas de Jesse Jordan del 4º Regimiento de Infantería de Alabama abordan su participación en First Bull Run, su vida en el campamento y su papel en la campaña de la Península.

Justice Family Papers, 1842-1917. 77 artículos. Mss2J9848b.
Contiene los papeles de la familia Justice del condado de Lunenburg. En esta colección se incluyen las cartas, 1861-1863, de Joseph Allen Elder (1841? -1863), de la Compañía G del 18. ° Regimiento de Infantería de Virginia, a Louisa Justice (n. 1841?) Que describen la vida en el campo (incluida una pelea de bolas de nieve con otras unidades confederadas cerca del río Rappahannock en febrero de 1863), el servicio de piquete cerca de Suffolk y los movimientos del regimiento en Carolina del Norte (sección 2).


Nuestra historia

Inglis & # 39 primer hogar permanente en 48th & amp Darby Road.

Annie Inglis

Inglis tiene sus raíces en una mujer joven de visión extraordinaria y una madre de determinación excepcional. Annie Inglis, hija de una familia de Filadelfia de clase media alta, contrajo escarlatina cuando era niña y quedó discapacitada permanentemente. Días antes de morir, el 4 de mayo de 1875, Annie, de diecisiete años, le expresó su sueño a su madre, & ldquothat un hogar para aquellos que no se pueden curar algún día estará en la ciudad. & Rdquo

El sueño de Annie era fundar un hogar en Filadelfia para cuidar a las personas con discapacidades de bajos ingresos durante una era en la que los pobres y los enfermos dependían por completo de la atención caritativa.


Annie Inglis

Annie le dio a su madre, Caroline, una moneda de oro de $ 1 para subastarla y comenzar una campaña de recaudación de fondos. Durante los dos años siguientes, esa moneda de oro se vendió varias veces y, finalmente, Caroline Inglis abrió el Hogar de Filadelfia para los incurables & ndash ahora Casa Inglis & ndash una de las primeras instalaciones en Filadelfia que ofrece atención médica residencial para los pobres.

Hoy, Inglis House es solo una parte de Inglis - El sueño de Annie se ha convertido en un sistema de servicios y productos diseñados para maximizar la independencia de los adultos con discapacidades físicas, tanto para aquellos que viven en nuestro centro de atención residencial a largo plazo en Inglis House como para aquellos que viven de forma independiente en la comunidad. ajustes. Con la evolución de estos servicios, Inglis ahora atiende a casi 1000 personas todos los días.


La historia de Inglis

Cómo un apellido se convirtió en una marca que representa calidad y confianza & # 8230

El nombre Inglis tiene una orgullosa herencia en Canadá. En 1859, armado con las habilidades para trabajar metales y hacer patrones aprendidas en Inglaterra y Escocia, John Inglis se mudó a Guelph, Ontario y fundó Mair, Inglis y Evatt, que construyeron maquinaria para molinos de harina y molinos.

En 1881, con el nombre de John Inglis and Sons, la empresa se trasladó a las instalaciones de Strachan Avenue en Toronto. Pero en 1898, con la empresa creciendo locamente, John Inglis murió. William, uno de los cinco hijos de John, asumió el liderazgo del negocio. En 1902, dirigió a la empresa hacia la fabricación de máquinas de vapor marinas y motores de bombeo para obras hidráulicas, y suspendió la producción de su línea de productos anterior.

Cuando William Inglis murió en 1935, el nuevo Toronto Island Ferry recibió su nombre en reconocimiento a su importante contribución al progreso industrial y cultural de la ciudad.

Dos años más tarde, un estadounidense llamado Major J.E. Hahn, compró la empresa e hizo cambios significativos en sus operaciones. Bajo el liderazgo del Mayor Hahn, la compañía ayudó en el esfuerzo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial fabricando armas para los gobiernos canadiense y británico. More than 17,800 people were employed at this time creating the need for expansion at the Strachan Avenue plant.

When the war ended in 1946, the company began to manufacture consumer products for the first time. Fishing tackle, house trailers, oil burner pumps and domestic heaters and stoves were among the diverse products offered.

In the same year, John Inglis Co. Limited negotiated with Nineteen Hundred Corporation (later Whirlpool Corporation) to manufacture home laundry products. The wringer washer was introduced in 1946, and in 1950, production of the automatic washer was added. The line of appliances expanded quickly to include electric and gas dryers, and dishwashers.

By 1966, Inglis had become the leading producer of domestic laundry appliances in Canada. In 1967, a refrigerator plant was opened in Stoney Creek, Ontario near Hamilton and production of dehumidifiers was added there in 1970.

In 1972, Inglis produced its one-millionth automatic washer and began manufacturing and selling appliances under the Whirlpool brand name. A year later the company began operating under the name, Inglis Limited. During the late 1970s, Inglis Limited continued to grow by building a new warehouse and sales and service facility in Laval, Quebec expanding its automatic washer manufacturing facility in Toronto and producing compact washers.


John Inglis - History

I have always wanted to visit the INGLIS site simply out of its historical value.

This is the site of the famous INGLIS BREN GUN and the INGLIS BROWNING HI POWER 9MM pistol.

There are several buildings left that contributed to the war effort with INGLIS but are in various states of disrepair.

One being the AR WILLIAMS MACHINERY building and the red clay brick building that was adopted by INGLIS after the site was no longer going to be used a as prison office.

The AR WILLIAMS building appears to be in the midst of being renovated due to its age.

Jim F 23-Jan-2017 18:56
These pictures provide history that makes my time at Inglis even more meaningful after many years have passed. I worked at the plant on the washer and dryer assembly line as a summer student for two years (70-71) and at that time there were still some women there who had worked on munitions during the war. they just stayed and switched to appliances. The last part of the building with the iconic sign that stayed for a number of years after demolition of the factory was where I had lunch every day, up on the roof. Thank you for helping me realize the significance of that place in our war effort.

Phil D. 07-Nov-2016 20:46
I'm so glad I ran across this. The Inglis GP35 Hi-Power has always been my favorite. For some reason it has always captured me more than any other pistol. My family lived in Kitchner when these were being produced and emigrated to the US in 1948 but I'm sure that despite this the Inglis would still hold the same place for me.

I let a cream puff that was my first Curio & Relics license purchase go many years ago and kick myself when I see current prices. I will eventually find a fair deal on an unrefinshed Inglis and take it home.

Eileen 13-May-2014 19:10
I have a ben machine gun mini. model on a metal base. It is about 4 inches long 2 inches high. It is stamped INGLIS on the base directly under the gun. Would you have any information on this item. I have spent about a week trying to find information. No luck. Thanks for any and all info you could give me.
Lester Hatch 01-Apr-2012 20:26
I think my Brengun is in one of these photos! JAJAJA. Good photo set. The picture is worth a 1000 words.
Scott Bray 19-Feb-2012 04:34
My Grandmother Aileen Bray worked at INGLIS before she was Transfer out to Lougheed House in Albert in 1944. She was a Lance Corporal in the Canadian Women's Army corp. I think she was an Weapons inspector at INGLIS. She passed away Oct 22nd, 2011. I never be more honored to have known her.
Glenn Emond 21-Dec-2010 20:03
Thanks for posting this site. My mother and Aunt worked together there during the war. She always talked about the good times they had there and now my family and I are able to see their work place.
Lester 21-Nov-2009 21:32
The Inglis MK2 Bren Gun was the most accurate, longest barreled, heaviest with the slowest rate of fire, of all the Bren gun models. To day in the UK (2009) you still see plenty of Inglis Bren guns D/A and on display. Many British Army Inglis bren guns went on to be converted to Nato 7.62mm ammunition. A conversion given to Enfield (at Enfield Lock)following the Chinese contract experience by Inglis.These Brens were in service until the early 90,s. Brens still turn up on the battlefield. Recently some Chinese Brens have even be converted to fire AK47 7.62 ammunition. Bren the best LMG ever made!
Huésped 12-May-2009 05:55
Very nice coverage of a very important Canadian manufacturer , and it's poor demise of building's.
I have had to watch the same in Oshawa where alot of the CMP's where made. There very few GM building'd left if any.
Keep up the good work
DAVID H 13-Jan-2008 17:26
Thankyou for providing all these interesting pictures and information as I have just bought an INGLIS made MK1m BREN and it is fascinating to see where they were made.
Kind Regards David H UK

David Sobel 05-Dec-2007 19:50
Enjoyed this show. I hope you have had a chance to read/consult "Working at Inglis": History of a Canadian Factory, published in 1994 by Lorimer and co-authored by myself and Susan Meurer. We deposited hundreds of records and photographs in the City of Toronto Archives.

Christopher Baxter 21-Jul-2007 20:57
I very much enjoyed the Inglis factory pictatorial tour so kindly provided by Mr. Clark. I have a converted 1941 Inglis Bren MK-1m which, like the factory, represents a real piece of Canadian History. In 1992 I had a brass plaque with he following inscription engraved and imbedded in the butt stock which pretty much sums up the feelings of many about this important part of Canadian history.

“ Made By The John Inglis Co. Limited, Toronto, Ontario, - With The Skill, Dedication, Integrity, And Pride In One’s Workmanship That We Hope To See Again IN CANADA


Contenido

A & J Inglis of Glasgow, was formed in 1848 as an engineering works. [4] Thomas B. Seath founded the shipyard at Pointhouse in 1845 and it was acquired by A & J Inglis in 1862. [3] In 1884 Anthony Inglis died and his son John Inglis took over. John Inglis himself, was well known for many maritime activities. In 1885 they launched 11 ships with a total tonnage of 7,470 tons. [5]

In 1867, a Patent Slip Dock for ship repairs was built at Pointhouse. This was an innovative alternative to a dry dock, invented by Robert Napier. The vessel sat on a big trolley, which was on rails, and was hauled up onto dry land by a powerful winch. The yard had up to 2,000 employees on just 18 acres of ground plus approximately 300 workers at the former premises of the company in Whitehall Foundry.

In 1897, the Transatlantic Company of Paris ordered two of a total of ten fast mail steamers for their African service at A & J Inglis. Inglis delivered two weeks ahead of their competitors. The French owners were impressed and checked carefully that the fast-track build programme had not resulted in an inferior quality, but found no evidence of this, on the contrary they were delighted with the high standard of construction achieved. [6]

Harland and Wolff bought controlling shares in the company in 1919 but the yard remained independent. [3] After Harland and Wolff, who also owned a larger yard on the opposite bank of the river at Govan, opted to consolidate its operations in Belfast, the yard closed in 1962 and is now the site of the new Riverside Museum.

Clippers and yachts Edit

Some of the first ships built by the shipyard were propelled by a combination of sails and steam engines. Because of their elegant design and high speed they were recognised as leading-edge representatives of their class.

The shipyard became famous by building the British Royal Yacht Alexandra and the Egyptian Royal Yacht SS Safra El-Bahr. The turbine yacht TS Vanadis was built of steel, rigged as a triple screw schooner and, unusually, was powered by steam turbines. [7]

Paddle steamers Edit

Famous ships built by the firm include the paddle steamer Waverley, [2] now the world's last seagoing paddle steamer. Other Inglis-built paddle steamers include the Maid of the Loch, [2] which still serves as a visitor attraction on Loch Lomond, [8] and the forerunner to the Humber Bridge, PS Lincoln Castle which was controversially broken up in situ at Grimsby's Alexandra Dock, despite her uniqueness of design as what was likely to have been Inglis's only cargo carrying estuary paddle steamer designed chiefly as a practical workhorse as opposed to a more elegant 'pleasure steamer' image more commonly associated with paddle steamers. In ocean-going service, paddle steamers became much less useful after the invention of the screw propeller, but they remained in use in coastal service and as river tugboats, thanks to their shallow draught and good manoeuvrability.

Conversions and extensions Edit

The shipyard was also specialised in conversions: On 16 May 1901 the TS King Edward was launched, which had been built by William Denny and Brothers in Dumbarton. The builders hoped to attain a speed of 20 knots (37 km/h) with the turbine machinery. However, on 24 June 1901 in seven return runs over the mile, the best mean speed attained was 19.7 knots (36.5 km/h). On the next day at the Pointhouse yard of A. & J. Inglis the central propeller of 4 feet (1.2 m) diameter was exchanged for one of 4 feet 9 inches (1.45 m) diameter, and the outer propellers of 2 feet 10 inches (0.86 m) diameter were exchanged for propellers 3 feet 4 inches (1.02 m) diameter. Trials on 26 June 1901 achieved a mean of 20.48 knots (37.93 km/h).

In 1905, an extension and rebuild of the SS Mahroussa was undertaken. The ship had been originally built for Isma'il Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt and was later renamed to SS El Horria. The two paddle wheels were replaced by triple screws powered by steam turbines built by Inglis at their Warroch Street Engine Works in Glasgow. Inglis were one of the first companies licensed by the Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company Wallsend for the manufacture of steam turbines in their own works. The ship was still in use in 2001 as a luxury yacht. [9]

Railway ferries Edit

Inglis built eight ferries between 1907 and 1929 for the Entre Rios Railways Co. in Argentina. These were used between 1907 and 1990 to cross the Paraná River and join the Buenos Aires province and the Entre Rios province, until new bridges were built over the rivers they crossed:

  • Lucía Carbó (1907)
  • María Parera (1908)
  • Mercedes Lacroze (1909)
  • Roque Saenz Peña (1911)
  • Exequiel Ramos Mejía (1913)
  • Dolores de Urquiza (1926)
  • Delfina Mitre (1928)
  • Carmen Avellaneda (1929)

Pictures of the Argentine train ferries at the Histarmar website. [10]

Motor vessels Edit

The MV Lady Rose was originally christened Lady Sylvia when launched in 1937 for the use on Barkley Sound. [11] She was designed for the sheltered coastal waters of British Columbia. However, this was the first diesel powered vessel to cross the Atlantic driven by a single propeller. Lady Rose was acquired by the Clayton family of Sechelt in September 2019 and she was relocated to the MacKenzie Marina in Sechelt soon thereafter. [12] Restoration plans are still being formulated.

MV Aqueity and MV Anonity were 890 GRT coastal tankers built in 1945 for the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT).

los North Carr Lightship was launched in 1932 and created quite a stir in Edinburgh on account of her fog horn being tested while lying ¾ mile off Granton, Edinburgh in the Firth of Forth. As the fog horn had a range of approximately 10 miles, north Edinburgh could hear it loud and clear and the complaints were numerous - particularly as it was being sounded in clear weather. "Hundreds of city dwellers have had no sleep over three consecutive nights" and "The most flagrant individual breach of the peace is as nothing compared with the ceaseless boom and consequent suffering of the past three nights" were typical statements at the time. [13]

During the Second World War the shipyard diversified into the built of military ships:

    laid down 13 October 1939, launched 23 May 1940 and completed 17 August 1940. Transferred to Greece as Kriezis. laid down 26 October 1939, launched 26 June 1940 and completed 20 October 1940. and HMS Sarabande – Dance-classarmed trawlers - Both launched 1940, sold 1946 – Shakespearian-classnaval trawler – Launched 1941, sold 1946 – Shakespearian-class naval trawler – Launched 3 May 1941, transferred to Kenya 1946, joined Royal East African Navy 1952, redeployed to Madagascar 1964 was a Flower-classcorvette that was launched on 28 September 1943 and served in the Royal Canadian Navy. , HMS Switha y HMS Oxna – Isles-class naval trawlers - Launched 1942-43 – Castle-classcorvette – Launched 10 December 1944, Became OWS Weather Reporter in 1957. – originally Totnes Castle – Castle-class corvette – Launched 12 April 1944. Transferred to Canada as HMCS Humberstone 1944. Sold for mercantile service 1947 was an 813 GRTEmpire coaster. Launched on 19 January 1945 and completed in April 1945. Sold in 1948 to Kuwait Oil Company and renamed Adib. Operated under the management of Angli-Iranian Oil Co Ltd. Sold in 1952 to Shell-Mex and BP Ltd and renamed BP Transporter. Scrapped in June 1965 in Antwerp, Belgium.

Cancelled military orders Edit

Several military orders for corvettes and tankers were cancelled at the end of the Second World War:


For me the story began with a yard sale in Guelph a few years ago that included a box of old fishing reels. As I pawed through the box, I came across a Model 1864 Ausable Shakespeare fly reel made by the Inglis Canada Company. Besides being an avid fly angler, I also collect antique fly fishing equipment and although this reel didn’t appear to be that old, I was intrigued that it had been manufactured in Canada. Not very many fly reels have been made in Canada. I figured that there might be a good story behind the reel.

James Emanuel Hahn from his 1954 autobiography “For Action”

Starting with the internet, I initially thought that the story involved the John Inglis Company of Toronto, and to an extent it did. The John Inglis Company manufactured shells and steam engines for freighters during the First World War and boilers, grain elevator and conveying equipment, hydraulic turnbines, tugs, and reciprocating and centrifugal pumps during the 1920’s. But like so many businesses, the John Inglis Company struggled during the Depression of the 1930’s and when the head of the company, William Inglis, one of John sons, died in 1933, the company went into receivership. In 1937 James Emanuel Hahn bought the manufacturing facility located on Strachan Avenue near Toronto’s downtown, and that’s when the story really gets interesting.

James Emanuel Hahn was born in 1892 in New York City of a German father, Alfred, and an Austrian mother ,Eugenie, nee Schlossburg. His parents had immigrated to the U.S. in 1890. James’ father was a salesman for a company which specialized in the manufacture of builders’ hardware and he had travelled in Canada and probably liked the large German-Canadian community in the Kitchener-Waterloo area. So in 1899 when he was seven years old James’ parents moved the family to New Hamburg where a Louis Hahn (no relation) and Alfred founded the Hahn Brass Company at a location on Waterloo Street in New Hamburg—one of two locations of the now Riverside Brass & Aluminum Foundry Limited.

James went to grade school in New Hamburg and then to high school at Kitchener Collegiate Institute, which was then known as the Berlin Technical and Collegiate Institute

In his excellent 1954 autobiography “For Action” James writes:

“In my earliest days I enjoyed fishing and boating on the River Nith and hunting in the woods in the surrounding countryside. Hunting, fishing and boats, and the equipment associated with all three, have remained among my main hobbies throughout my entire life. It is no accident that at one time or another in later years, companies that I directed produced fishing tackle, guns and the complete propulsion equipment for ships at sea”.

After graduating from high school, in 1911 Hahn began an academic program in Political Science at the University of Toronto, but had to withdraw in his third year because his father was seriously ill. After the New Year, once his father was out of danger, he discovered he would have to wait until the fall to resume his UofT program.

Anxious to have something to do over the winter months, James applied for a job as the Principal at the school in Byng Inlet north of Parry Sound on Georgian Bay. Due to the community’s urgent need the Village Trustees accepted his application, but were understandably concerned when the nineteen year old new Principal–they hadn’t asked him his age–stepped off the train. However, James rose to the challenge and turned his six months in the lumbering town into a good experience for Principal and students alike. So much so, that the students presented him with a pair of paddles when he left.

Instead of resuming his studies at the University, Hahn went into business with his father, but when the declaration of war occurred on August 4th, 1914 he volunteered for active service. However, when most of his Battalion, the First Canadian Infantry Battalion, left for England, he was told that he was going to be left behind because of his German last name. That did not sit well with James, so he took a huge chance, by-passed proper channels, met with the Minister of National Defence and appealed that he be allowed to go. The gambit worked and by February of 1915 he was training in the mud of the Salisbury Plains before shipping off to France. James’s German last name created additional controversy as he ended up involved in army intelligence and the matter had been raised in the Canadian House of Commons. But his commanding officers rallied around him and the controversy was soon laid to rest.

Hahn was wounded three times during WW1, the third time in September of 1916 was life threatening. He had been hit in the hip by shrapnel from an exploding shell during the Battle of the Somme. James did pull through and was sent back to England towards the end of October and then returned to Canada for three months leave. Towards the end of that three months he received instructions to attend a Medical Board review. Anticipating that the Medical Board would declare him medically unfit, Hahn instead bought his own ticket back to England to sail on February 4th of 1917. In England he appealed to his senior officers that he be allowed to return to active duty—an appeal that was again successful, not least of all because he had in the meantime received the Military Cross from King George V at Buckingham Palace.

Through 1918 Hahn participated in several battles by gathering intelligence, often from near the front lines, which helped plan many of those battles. He became acutely aware of the importance of keeping the troops well equipped with guns and ammunition which the German forces always seemed to have more of.

Finally on November 11, 2018 the Armistice was signed and the war to end all wars itself came to an end.

James returned to Canada in June of 1919 with the rank of major and was able, through a special arrangement for veterans, to attend Osgoode law school where, as part of that same special arrangement, he was permitted to complete a law degree in one year instead of the usual three. He met Dorothy McLagan on New Year’s Eve, 1920 and they were married on September 15th 1921.

Having decided that the legal profession was not for him, James went into industry. He got involved in the fledgling radio industry and met with great success. But it was not all work and no play. Hahn joined the Royal Canadian Yacht Club and became involved in yacht racing. He also took up fishing again and, in particular, fly fishing.

Although his companies were affected by the Depression of the ‘30’s, Hahn weathered the storm. He was becoming increasingly concerned about the rise of Hitler in Germany and by 1936 was sure that another war was approaching. That’s when James bought the John Inglis Company, and in 1938, just ahead of the 1939 start of World War 2, secured the first of many contracts to produce the new Bren Machine Gun. By the end of World War 2 the John Inglis Company was the single largest producer of the Bren Machine Gun for Canada and Britain. The company also built other weapons and manufactured ammunition as well.

Hahn also became involved in the Crown company, Victory Aircraft that turned out Lancaster Bombers which played a pivotal role for the Allies.

When World War 2 ended in 1945 the John Inglis Company employed seventeen thousand people. The question immediately arose as to what changes the Company was going to have to make to keep those people employed in a post war world. New product lines would have to be identified that would use the skills that had been developed in the war time work-force. Perhaps most famously, Inglis washer and driers emerged out of the process. But lots of other products too. Glass lined steel tanks for breweries, equipment for pulp and paper mills, engines for Canadian destroyers, recreational trailers—all were manufactured by Inglis Canada.

Let’s not forget about the Shakespeare-Inglis fly reel where this story started. Just as the manufacture of the Bren Machine Gun required the machining of many small parts in large quantities, so does the manufacture of fishing reels. As a boy, Hahn had been given a Shakespeare fishing reel which he remembered fondly. So when Inglis Canada decided to also produce fishing equipment in the post war years, an licensing agreement was arrived at with Shakespeare, at that time a Michigan based company. Inglis began producing rods, reels, lines, lures and tackle boxes under license to Shakespeare, but proudly stamped Inglis Canada. Inglis Canada had its own catalogue and marketed Shakespeare-Inglis products largely independent of the Shakespeare Company into the 1960’s.

James Emanuel Hahn passed away on August 31, 1955. That Inglis-Shakespeare fly reel I picked up at that yard sale in Guelph is a little part of James’ legacy that reminds me of his reel interesting story.


Company-Histories.com

Dirección:
10 Pictsweet Drive
Bells, Tennessee 38006
ESTADOS UNIDOS.

Telephone: (901) 422-7600
Fax: (800) 561-8810

Statistics:

Compañía publica
Incorporated: 1956 as United Industries Company, Inc.
Employees: 2,100
Sales: $195.8 million (1997)
Stock Exchanges: American
SICs: 5142 Packaged Frozen Foods 0161 Vegetables and Melons 0182 Food Crops Grown Under Cover

United Foods, Inc., is a major processor and marketer of frozen vegetables in the United States. With facilities for processing and cold storage in Bells, Tennessee Ogden, Utah and Santa Maria, California, United Foods markets nearly 70 percent of its output under the Pictsweet brand, which it built into a national brand during the 1990s. While the company owns and operates mushroom farms in Utah, Oregon, and California, most of its raw vegetables are supplied by independent growers located across the country.

Like other companies in the frozen food industry, United Foods' revenues and profitability are subject to the normal cyclical conditions and risks inherent in the agricultural industry. Adverse weather conditions and excess inventories can cause substantial reductions in the annual volume of product processed in the company's facilities, in which case the unit cost of that year's production increases substantially, resulting in reduced profit margins for one or more years. On the other hand, unit costs decrease when there is a bumper crop, but selling prices will also generally be depressed.

During the company's 1996 fiscal year, 72 percent of United Foods' sales were to retail outlets (grocery chains, independent food stores, and military commissaries), 18 percent to institutional outlets (restaurants, hospitals, schools, hotels, and federal and state government agencies), and eight percent to other food companies. Approximately two percent of the company's revenues were derived from rental and miscellaneous income. Trucking services accounted for less than one percent of overall revenue. During the year the company's five largest customers were the Defense Personnel Support Center, Food Lion, Inc., The Kroger Company, Kenneth O. Lester, Inc., and J.R. Simplot Company, Inc.

1950s Origins as a Texas Grain Storage Company

United Foods was incorporated as United Industries Company, Inc., in Texas in 1956. With headquarters in Houston, and its principal business the warehousing of grain under contract with the Commodity Credit Corporation, the company became established in the grain storage business when it acquired the Santana Grain Storage Co., Inc., and the Southwest Grain Storage Co., Inc. in 1958. These two companies were merged into United the following year.

In 1961, the company adopted its present name and went public, listing its stock on the American Stock Exchange. Operations during this time included subsidiaries engaged in freezing and packing vegetables and shrimp, and supplying bananas, feed, and market-fattened cattle to packers in the Houston area. The company also operated a cold storage warehouse in Brownsville, Texas. In 1961 United Foods had net income of $.4 million on revenues of $4.8 million.

By the end of the 1960s United Foods was committed to freezing and packaging vegetables, shrimp, and fruit as its principal line of business. During the decade it had made numerous acquisitions of frozen food processing companies, including Western Frozen Foods of Watsonville, California, in 1963 Colonial Cannery, Inc., of Independence, Louisiana, in 1964 and Sodus Fruit Exchange, Inc., of Sodus, Michigan, in 1966. In 1966 it divested itself of its small business investment company, First United Capital Corporation.

In 1967 United Foods made four major acquisitions in the frozen food business: Trappe Frozen Foods Corporation of Trappe, Maryland Othello Packers, Inc., of Othello, Washington Dulany Foods, Inc., a subsidiary of Green Giant Co. and the frozen food business of California Consumers Corporation. For its 1968 fiscal year United Foods had net income of $57,216 on revenues of $28.8 million.

Relocation in the Early 1970s

Through a stock swap United Foods acquired the John Inglis Frozen Foods Company of Modesto, California, in November 1970. During the 1970s this would become one of the company's two major operating subsidiaries, with processing plants in Salinas and Modesto, California. Following the acquisition, founder John Inglis joined United Foods' board of directors and soon became the company's chairman and chief executive officer.

The second major operating subsidiary, Winter Garden Freezer Co., Inc., of Tennessee, was acquired in November 1971. Following the acquisition, United Foods moved its headquarters from Houston to Memphis, Tennessee. Before the end of the decade, United Foods would again move, establishing headquarters in Bells, Tennessee, located in West Tennessee about a hundred miles northeast of Memphis.

During the 1970s United Foods' revenues hovered around the $100 million mark. Depending on weather conditions and the supply of raw vegetables, the company would either show a net profit or net loss. In 1975, for example, it had net income of $3.3 million on revenues of $106.5 million. Then in 1976 and 1977 it posted net losses of $2 million and $.6 million on revenues of $99 million and $98.5 million, respectively.

By 1977, when John Inglis retired, the company was one of the largest processors and marketers of frozen vegetables in the United States. It produced all major vegetables except potatoes and offered the broadest line of any frozen vegetable processor. It operated 11 processing facilities in California, Washington, Tennessee, Utah, and Texas, providing the company with a wide geographical source of supply within the major vegetable growing areas of the United States. Five of the plants were located in the fertile growing areas of California, including the San Joaquin Valley, the Salinas Valley, the Pajaro Valley, the Santa Cruz Coastal Area, and the Santa Maria Valley. Moreover, the Bells, Tennessee, facility was located near the productive farmlands of the Mississippi Delta, and the Brownsville, Texas, facility was located near the rich Rio Grande Valley. At this time United Foods' marketed its produce under the major brand names of Dulany, Prime Froz-n, and Winter Garden. The company was also a major packer of frozen vegetables for retail grocery chains sold under their own private labels.

A new management team was put in place at United Foods in March 1978, led by J.O. Tankersley, chairman and CEO, and James I. Tankersley, president and chief operating officer. During 1978 the company posted net income of $3.3 million on sales of $108.3 million. After two years of net losses it had returned to profitability, but it would not attain that level of net income again until 1983.

Diversification in the Late 1970s, Early 1980s

In 1979 United Foods had record revenues of $122.2 million, but a disappointing net profit of only $.6 million. The company cited pressures from inflation on manufacturing and distribution costs, and it was not able to recover these costs through higher selling prices.

Given the seasonal nature of its vegetable business, United Foods began to consider diversifying into other areas of agribusiness to add stability to future profits. In 1980 the company announced it would undertake a program of acquisitions to diversify its operations within the field of agribusiness. Former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz and Tennessee Lieutenant Governor John Wilder were added to the board of directors to help guide United Foods in its diversification program.

Faced with a choice of expanding its eastern farming operation into a larger corporate farming operation or getting out of farming altogether in the eastern United States, the company terminated its eastern farming operation and disposed of its farming assets in December 1978. In fact, during the next two years it ceased all farming operations and disposed of related farming equipment, finding that independent growers were inherently more efficient than corporate farms, which had been providing about eight percent of the company's raw product needs. In December 1980 United Foods also discontinued its western farming operations.

During this time, inventories continued at significantly higher levels, causing higher interest and storage expenses and depressed selling prices. Continuing inflation and a slowing growth rate in the mature industry of frozen foods made inventory management and the proper matching of selling prices to current costs even more important to the company.

To meet these challenges, United Foods implemented cost reduction plans, intensified its management of inventories, implemented tighter operating control systems, added more depth to its management base, and announced a major repositioning of underutilized assets.

The company was soon successful in reducing its inventories of frozen vegetables by approximately 45 percent. Adopting a defensive posture toward inflation--implementing programs of cost reductions, lower inventory levels, and tighter management controls--the company enjoyed considerably improved operating results.

During this time United Foods was taking a slow and deliberate approach in its acquisitions program. It planned to complete its first diversification in the summer of 1982 with the acquisition of Freezer Queen Foods, Inc., of Buffalo New York. Freezer Queen produced and marketed frozen entrees in two-pound trays and five-ounce "cook-in" pouches.

The company's improved profits, up about 80 percent from 1981 to 1982, was attributed to stronger market prices, selective reductions in low margin business, improvements in production costs, and reductions in average inventory levels in the Frozen Food Division.

A newly formed Land Division was designed to develop a source of raw product which would allow United Foods to grow and process a portion of its West Coast vegetables in Tennessee. It acquired approximately 7,100 acres of land on the Cumberland Plateau in East Tennessee. The company noted that the cost to ship a pound of vegetables from California to the East Coast continued to escalate due to higher fuel costs. With the items being produced in Tennessee, the company could cut its freight costs in half. Like others in the frozen food industry, United Foods was implementing a program to move a significant portion of its vegetable production to the central United States from the West Coast. In 1983 the company leased approximately 2,300 acres of the land it had acquired in Tennessee to independent farmers.

By June 1982, United Foods had completed its acquisition of Freezer Queen Foods, Inc. In October of that year, the company bought the $50 million frozen vegetable division of Stokely-Van Camp. Included in this purchase were vegetable processing plants in Fairmont, Minnesota, and Albany, Oregon, which were added to United Foods' frozen food division. As a result, United Foods began selling frozen vegetables throughout the United States under the Pictsweet and Stokely brands and in the Midwest and South under the Everfresh brands. The acquisitions were financed with borrowed capital, and annual revenues were expected to surpass $200 million the following year.

The market presence of United Foods was becoming more widespread, as its brands included Dulany (Eastern region), Tennessee and Everfresh (Midwest and South), Prime Frozen, Soup Ladle, Freezer Queen, Stokely (licensed), Pictsweet, and Winter Garden.

As expected, the company had record sales in 1984, due primarily to the acquisitions of Freezer Queen and Stokely-Van Camp. However, the company also experienced an unexpected decrease in earnings. Competitive market conditions resulted in depressed selling prices throughout the fiscal year. Sales volume was lower than expected in the fourth quarter due to adverse weather conditions, which caused the company to deplete its stocks of certain key vegetables. Operating expenses were up to $31.7 million from $27 million the prior year. These were largely attributed to additional staff and expenses associated with the expansion of the frozen food product line.

Like other processors, United Foods was moving its operations out of the traditional growing areas of California and the Pacific Northwest to be nearer the eastern population centers, allowing for lower distribution costs. Since, the remaining western processing capacity far exceeded that needed to serve western population centers, some western processors began to lower their prices, even while many key vegetables were in short supply.

In response, United Foods led an industry realignment, investing capital to increase the capacity of its Tennessee and Minnesota processing and distribution facilities. It closed five plants located in California and the Pacific Northwest, while its remaining western processing capacity was brought into line with demand there.

Freezer Queen operated above expectations in 1984: its profitability surged and market share was gained in the frozen entree categories in which it participated. A new line of twin-pouch single-serving entrees was developed for introduction to several test markets by the end of 1984. This was considered one of the fastest growing areas of the frozen food industry.

The Effects of Streamlining in the Late 1980s

However, overall revenues at United Foods would not reach 1984 levels again until the early 1990s. During this period the company cut back its processing facilities and consolidated its brands. At the end of February 1986 it sold the assets used in the Freezer Queen Division for $35.6 million to James Crean of Ireland, using proceeds to reduce the company's long-term debt. Freezer Queen had contributed approximately $44 million in revenue in 1986, $39.9 million in 1985, and $34.8 million in 1984.

Moreover, the company began experiencing labor problems in the summer of 1986 that would grow more severe over the coming years. Citing the need to reduce labor costs to remain competitive, the company noted that wage rates paid by competitors had declined during the year and that wages paid in Mexico were lower than U.S. rates. When its union contracts expired, United Foods attempted to negotiate lower wage rates, resulting in strikes in 1986 and 1987 at the company's Fairmont, Minnesota Modesto, California and Salinas, California, facilities. During 1987 and 1988, United Foods permanently replaced its striking workers at the Modesto and Salinas facilities. Decertification elections were held, with employees at both plants voting against the union. Then, in 1991 the company closed its plants in Modesto and Salinas and consolidated the frozen vegetable processing and cold storage operations at a leased facility in Santa Maria, California, effective June 28, 1991. The closing of the Salinas plant put 250 people out of work.

As a result of these closures, in 1992 the company operated from three frozen vegetable processing plants and cold storage warehouses located in Bells, Tennessee Fairmont, Minnesota and Ogden, Utah. It leased one processing plant and cold storage warehouse facility in Santa Maria, California, which it would later purchase.

United Foods also owned and operated three mushroom farms located in Utah, California, and Oregon, acquired in 1987 when United Foods was the high bidder in bankruptcy proceedings for certain assets of Mushroom King, Inc. The assets were purchased for $1.4 million, and the farms proved profitable for United Foods.

By the late 1980s United Foods' brand names had been consolidated into Pictsweet (a national brand), Dulany (sold in the East), Tennessee (available in the Midwest and South), and Winter Garden (marketed in the Southeast). In the beginning of 1988 the company launched Pictsweet Express, a new line of vegetables for the microwave, and by 1991 Pictsweet and Pictsweet Express were the company's two dominant brands. During the 1990s the Pictsweet brand was developed into a national brand in order to distinguish the company's products on a basis other than price.

Facing Strong Competition in the 1990s

In December 1992 United Foods closed its Fairmont, Minnesota, facility, leaving it with three processing plants and cold storage warehouse facilities. To offset the loss of these facilities, the company entered into a reciprocal supply agreement with another food processing company, with deliveries to begin in 1993. The other company would supply products that were previously processed in Fairmont, while United Foods would supply it with frozen vegetables processed at Bells and Santa Maria.

Throughout the 1990s United Foods faced extremely strong competition, especially from owners of the Birdseye and Green Giant brands, who spent large amounts of money in a fight for the number one position in branded sales. Other competition came from private, regional U.S. vegetable processors and privately-owned Mexican vegetable processors competing for volume. Such competitive pressures, combined with low overall growth, resulted in weak market pricing. United Foods management expected this condition to continue for several years.

Amy, Jeff, "Tennessee Firm a Lone Voice Supporting Better Labeling of Frozen Vegetables," Nashville Banner, April 24, 1997.
"United Foods, Inc., Announces Operating Results," Business Wire, April 11, 1997.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories , Vol. 21. St. James Press, 1998.


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